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MLA Citation Rules & Examples

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Below you'll find basic rules for creating MLA bibliographic entries, as well as example citations. More detailed instructions are available in current MLA handbooks and style manuals, such as:
  • MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers Call Number PE1478.M57 2003 (6th ed.) -- the standard guide for undergraduate students.
  • MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing Call Number PN147.G444 1998 (2nd ed.) -- the standard guide for graduate students, teachers, and scholars.
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The following sections use guidelines from the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (2003 6th edition) and offer rules about what to include in citations and punctuation tips. According to MLA guidelines, papers are commonly, "prepared with a single space after all concluding punctuation marks" such as periods." However, it is acceptable to use "two spaces after concluding punctuation marks unless an instructor requests that you do otherwise" (94). Therefore, you should ask your instructor which spacing to use after periods.

Remember to consult the guidelines provided by your instructor and the MLA handbook before relying on other guidelines -- including the ones given below.

BOOKS
-- Rules & Examples
• Book with one author
• Book with two or three authors
• Book with three or more authors
• Book with editor(s), but no author(s)
• Book with no author or editor
• Book with corporate author



ARTICLES (PRINT) IN PERIODICALS
-- Rules & Examples
• Article in a scholarly journal with continuous pagination
• Article in a scholarly journal paginated issue by issue
• Article in a magazine
• Article in a newspaper



REVIEWS (PRINT) IN PERIODICALS
-- Rules & Examples
• Published review in a periodical
 
LIBRARY DATABASES
(used to locate citations or full-text of articles, reviews, etc.)
-- Rules & Examples
Article in a library database
Review in a library database

OTHER ONLINE RESOURCES
-- Rules & Examples
Document in a freely accessible database/project
Article in a free online periodical
Review in a free online periodical
Entire online book
Part of an online book
Personal home page


COMPILATIONS/ANTHOLOGIES
-- Rules & Examples
• Compilation or anthology (entire work)
Work within a compilation or anthology
Work reprinted in a compilation or anthology


INTERVIEWS
-- Rules & Examples
• Published and personal interviews

BOOKS -- Rules & Examples

Book citations contain some or all of the following elements, which are usually given in the order shown. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the book's characteristics. See the MLA handbook for more details.
•  Author's name (last name, first name) -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Andrea A. Lunsford).
•  Title of the book (underlined) -- followed by a period. Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Name of the editor, translator, or compiler -- preceded by the appropriate abbreviation (Ed., Trans., Comp.) and followed by a period.
•  Edition used (e.g., 2nd, 4th, Rev., Expanded) -- followed by the abbreviation ed and a period.
•  Number(s) of the volume(s) used -- followed by a period.
If you use two or more volumes of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes.
If you use only one volume of a multivolume work, state the number of the volume (e.g., Vol. 2) -- followed by a period.
•  Title of the series -- followed by a period.
•  Place (city) of publication -- followed by a colon.
•  Name of publisher (shortened according to MLA handbook guidelines) -- followed by a comma.
•  Year of publication, followed by a period.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS

-- BOOK WITH ONE AUTHOR --

Bambara, Toni. The Salt Eaters. New York: Random House, 1980.

Doyle, Arthur Conan. The Oxford Sherlock Holmes. Ed. Owen Dudley empty spaceEdwards, 9 vols. New York: Oxford UP, 1993.

Parker, Hershel. Melville: A Biography. Vol. 1. Baltimore: empty spaceJohns Hopkins UP, 1996.


-- BOOK WITH TWO OR THREE AUTHORS --
Altick, Richard D., and Andrea A. Lunsford. Preface to Critical Reading. empty space 6th ed. New York: Holt, 1984.

Hutchinson, Frances, Mary Mellor, and Wendy Olsen. empty spaceThe Politics of Money: Towards Sustainability and Economic Democracy. London: Pluto Press, 2002.

Hyde, Margaret O., and Elizabeth Held Forsyth. Suicide: The Hidden Epidemic. empty spaceRev. ed. New York: Watts, 1986.


-- BOOK WITH THREE OR MORE AUTHORS --
You may give only the first author and add et al. ("and others").

Quirk, Randolph, et al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. empty spaceLondon: Longman, 1985.

Or you may give all the names in full.
Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik.empty space A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman, 1985.


-- BOOK WITH EDITOR(S) AND NO AUTHOR(S) --

Gong, Victor, and Norman Rudnick, eds. AIDS: Facts and Issues. New Brunswick: empty spaceRutgers UP, 1986.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., gen. ed. empty spaceHistory of U.S. Political Parties. 4 vols. New York: Chelsea, 1973.


-- BOOK WITH NO AUTHOR OR EDITOR (an anonymous book) --
Encyclopedia of Virginia. New York: Somerset, 1993.

A Guide to Our Federal Lands. empty spaceWashington: Natl. Geographic Soc., 1984.


-- BOOK WITH A CORPORATE AUTHOR (e.g., commission, association, committee, etc.) --
American Library Association. Intellectual Freedom Manual. empty space6th ed. Chicago: ALA, 2002.

Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the United States.empty space Motor Truck Facts. New York: Automobile Manufacturers Assn., 1973.

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ARTICLES (PRINT) IN PERIODICALS -- Rules & Examples

Citations for articles in periodicals contain different elements based on whether the periodical is
• a scholarly journal with continuous pagination,
• a scholarly journal that paginates issue by issue,
• a magazine, or
• a newspaper.

The rules and examples below show specific elements for these four types of periodicals.

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ARTICLE IN A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL WITH CONTINUOUS PAGINATION

Citations for articles in journals with continuous pagination (page numbering continues throughout the year and does not restart at page one with each issue) can include the following elements. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the journal's characteristics. See the MLA handbook for more details.
•  Name of the author (last name, first name) of the article in the periodical -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g.,Naomi Barko).
•  Title of the article (enclosed in quotation marks) -- Put a period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Title of the periodical (underlined) -- followed by a space. Omit introductory articles and capitalize all principal words.
•  Series number or title -- followed by a space. See the MLA handbook for details.
•  Volume number -- followed by a space.
NOTE: If the journal only uses issue numbers and does not give a volume number, treat the issue number as you would the volume number.
•  Year of publication -- in parentheses and followed by a colon.
•  Page numbers of the article being cited -- followed by a period. See the MLA handbook for specific rules regarding page numbers.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Brock, Dan W. "The Value of Prolonging Human Life." empty spacePhilosophical Studies 50 (1986): 401-26.

Daniels, John. "Indian Population of North America in 1492." empty spaceWilliam and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. 49 (1992): 298-320.

Wentersdorf, Karl P. "Hamlet's Encounter with the Pirates." empty spaceShakespeare Quarterly 34 (1983): 434-40.
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ARTICLE IN A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL PAGINATED ISSUE BY ISSUE

Citations for articles in journals that paginate each issue separately (page numbering starts with page one in each issue) can include the following elements. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the journal's characteristics. See the MLA handbook for more details.
•  Name of the author (last name, first name) of the work in the periodical -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Betty Friedan).
•  Title of the article (enclosed in quotation marks) -- Put a period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Title of the periodical (underlined) -- followed by a space. Omit introductory articles and capitalize all principal words.
•  Series number or title -- followed by a space. See the MLA handbook for details.
•  Volume number -- followed by a period and no space.
NOTE: If the journal only uses issue numbers and does not give the volume number, just give the issue number (see below).
•  Issue number -- followed by a space.
•  Year of publication -- in parentheses and followed by a colon.
•  Page numbers of the article being cited -- followed by a period. See the MLA handbook for specific rules regarding page numbers.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Baum, Rosalie Murphy. empty space"Alcoholism and Family Abuse in Maggie and The Bluest Eye." Mosaic 19.3 (1986): 91-105.

Vickery, Laurie. empty space"The Politics of Abuse: The Traumatized Child in Toni Morrison and Marguerite Duras." Mosaic 29.2 (1996): 91-109.

Winks, Robin W. "The Sinister Oriental Thriller: Fiction and the Asian Scene." empty spaceJournal of Popular Culture 19.2 (1985): 49-61.
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ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE

Citations for articles in magazines (trade journals/magazines, popular interest magazines, special interest magazines, etc. ) can include the following elements. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the magazine's characteristics. See the MLA handbook for more details.
•  Name of the author (last name, first name) of the work in the periodical -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Gloria Steinem).
•  Title of the article (enclosed in quotation marks) -- Put a period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Title of the periodical (underlined) -- followed by a space. Omit introductory articles and capitalize all principal words.
•  Do not give volume and issue numbers, even if they are present.
•  Date of publication -- followed by a colon.
NOTE: For magazines published weekly or biweekly, give the complete date: begin with the day, abbreviate the month (when possible), then give year. (e.g., 1 June 1987 or 16 Jan. 1987).
For magazines published monthly or bimonthly, give the month or months (abbreviated) and the year, but not day (e.g., June 1987 or July-Aug. 1996).
•  Page numbers of the article being cited -- followed by a period. See the MLA handbook for specific rules regarding page numbers.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
"Engineered Plants Resist Herbicide." High Technology empty space Jan. 1986: 9.

Lamb, Douglas H., and Glenn D. Reeder. "Reliving Golden Days." empty spacePsychology Today June 1986: 22+.

Mehta, Pratap Bhanu. "Exploding Myths." empty spaceNew Republic 6 June 1998: 17-19.

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ARTICLE IN A NEWSPAPER

Citations for articles in newspapers can include the following elements. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the newspaper's characteristics. See the MLA handbook for more details.
•  Name of the author (last name, first name) of the work in the newspaper -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Hillary Rodham Clinton).
•  Title of the article (enclosed in quotation marks) -- Put a period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Title of the newspaper (underlined) -- followed by a space. Give the title as it appears on the masthead, omit introductory articles. If the city of publication is not included in the title of a locally published newspaper, add it in square brackets, not underlined, after the title. For nationally published newspapers, do not add the city of publication.
•  Do not give volume and issue numbers even if they are present.
•  Complete date of publication -- followed by a colon unless an edition and/or section title is needed (see below). If either an edition or section is given, put a comma after the date.
NOTE: Give the complete date: begin with the day, abbreviate the month (when possible), then give year. (e.g., 1 June 1987 or 16 Jan. 1987).
•  Edition title, if it is given in the masthead. (e.g., late ed. or natl. ed.) -- followed by a colon unless a section number or letter is needed. If a section number or letter is needed, put a comma and a space after the edition title.
•  Section number or letter if the section designation is not part of the page number -- Add the abbreviation sec. and the appropriate letter or number (e.g., sec. 2) followed by a colon.
•  Page numbers of the article being cited -- followed by a period. See the MLA handbook for specific rules regarding page numbers.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Alaton, Salem. "So, Did They Live Happily Ever After?" empty spaceGlobe and Mail [Toronto] 27 Dec. 1997: D1+.

Greeley, Andrew. "Today's Morality Play: The Sitcom." New York Times empty space17 May 1987, late ed., sec. 2: 1+.

Fuerbringer, Jonathan. "Budgetary Rhythms." New York Times" empty space20 Mar. 1987, late ed.: A8.

"Nervous Robber Accidentally Shoots Himself in the Mouth." empty spaceHouston Chronicle 15 Jan. 1986, state final ed., sec. 1: 17.

Tucker, Cynthia. "Education Stays on Top of Southerners' Agenda." empty spaceAtlanta Constitution 21 Mar. 1987: 19A.
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REVIEWS (PRINT) IN PERIODICALS -- Rules & Examples

Citations for reviews in periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers, etc.) will include the following elements plus information about the periodical. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the periodical's characteristics. See the MLA handbook and examples on this page for details about citation elements for various types of periodicals.
•  Name of the reviewer (last name, first name) -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Amitrajeet A. Batabyal).
•  Title of the review, (enclosed in quotation marks) if there is one. -- Put a period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Rev. of (do not underline or enclose in quotation marks) -- followed by a space.
•  Title of the work being reviewed -- followed by a comma. Punctuate titles according to kind (e.g., use quotation marks for short story titles, underline book titles, etc.). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  The word by, and the name of the author (in standard name order) for the piece being reviewed -- followed by a period. If the work of someone other than an author is being reviewed (e.g., an editor, translator, director, etc.), use the appropriate abbreviation, such as ed., trans., or dir. For a review of a performance, see the MLA handbook for details.
•  If the review addresses more than one work, list titles and authors in the order given in the review. Put a comma between the entries (see the Leonard example below).
•  Title of the periodical (underlined) -- followed by a space. Omit introductory articles and capitalize all principal words.
•  Publication information for the periodical -- followed by a colon. Use the guidelines given in the MLA handbook and in other sections concerning publication information for various types of periodicals (e.g., when to use volume & issue numbers, how to format dates, etc.).
•  Page numbers of the review being cited -- followed by a period. See the MLA handbook for specific rules regarding page numbers.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Kaufmann, Stanley. "Toward the Shadows." empty spaceRev of Iris, dir. Richard Eyre. New Republic 11 Feb. 2002: 26-27.

Keen, Maurice. "The Knight of Knights." empty spaceRev. of William Marshall: The Flower of Chivalry, by George Durby. Trans. Richard Howard. empty spaceNew York Review of Books 16 Jan. 1986: 39-40.

Leonard, John. "New Books." empty spaceRev. of The Gate, by Francois Bizot, On the Natural History of Destruction, by W. G. Sebald, empty spaceand Harvard and the Unabomber: The Education of an American Terrorist, by Alston Chase. Harper's Magazine Mar. 2003: 75-76.

Socha, Thomas J. empty spaceRev. of Learning the Rules: The Anatomy of Children's Relationships, by B. J. Bigelow, G. Tesson, and J. H. Lewko. empty spaceCommunication Education 47 (1998): 91-92.

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LIBRARY DATABASES -- Rules & Examples

Some online (electronic) materials are only accessible through subscription databases like those offered by Tarleton libraries. Therefore, to properly direct others to materials obtained from subscription databases, additional information must be included about the database used, as indicated in the rules and examples below, which give citation information for the following types of library database materials:
article in a library database, and
review in a library database
.

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ARTICLE IN A LIBRARY DATABASE

Citations for an article in a library or subscription database can contain the following information. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the article's characteristics and the type of subscription (personal or library). The list below shows citation elements for a library database with articles that also appear in print format. Consult the MLA handbook and other examples on this page for details about elements to include for various types of periodicals.
•  Name of the author (last name, first name) of the article -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Diana Neal).
•  Title of the article (enclosed in quotation marks) -- Put a period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Title of the periodical (underlined) -- followed by a space. Omit introductory articles and capitalize all principal words.
•  Publication information for the periodical -- followed by a colon. Use the guidelines given in other sections concerning publication information for various types of periodicals (e.g., when to use volume & issue numbers, how to format dates, etc.).
For the publication date, use either the electronic publication date, the latest update, or the posting date. Choose the date that will best help the readers of your bibliography.
•  Page numbers of the article being cited. If the service only gives the article's starting page number, give that page number followed by a hyphen, a space, and a period (e.g., 111- .). See the MLA handbook for more details.
•  Name of the database (underlined) -- followed by a period.
•  Name of the service or vendor from which the library gets the database (e.g., EBSCO, Gale Group, ProQuest, etc.) -- followed by a period. Note: Usually the service/vendor has an icon on the database's search page.
•  Name of the library -- followed by a comma.
•  Location of the library (city or state abbreviation or both if helpful) -- followed by a period.
•  Date the article was accessed (date when you found the article in the database) in day, month, year order (e.g., 29 Apr. 2003) -- followed by a space unless you are unable to locate the service's/vendor's home page (see below). If the access date is the last entry in your citation, follow it with a period.
•  URL for the service's/vendor's home page, if possible (enclosed in angle brackets) -- followed by a period.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Cappiello, Dina. "Group says Texas Being Invaded by Harmful Plants and Animals." empty spaceHouston Chronicle 6, Feb. 2003, 3 star ed., sec. A: 28. NewsBank Texas NewsFile. empty spaceNewsBank, Inc. Dick Smith Lib., Stephenville, TX. 29 Apr. 2003 empty space<http://www.newsbank.com/>.

Daniels, John. "Indian Population of North America in 1492." empty spaceWilliam and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. 49 (1992): 298-320. JSTOR. JSTOR. Dick Smith Lib., Stephenville, TX. empty space29 Apr. 2003 <http://www.jstor.org/>.

Fox, Justin. "What in the World Happened to Economics?" empty spaceFortune 15 Mar. 1999: 90- . Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Dick Smith Lib., Stephenville, TX. empty space29 Apr. 2003 <http://www.epnet.com/>.

Kaufmann, Stanley. "On Films - Toward the Shadows." empty spaceRev of Iris, dir. Richard Eyre. New Republic 11 Feb. 2002: 26-27. Literature Resource Center. Gale Group. empty spaceDick Smith Lib., Stephenville, TX. 29 Apr. 2003 <http://www.galegroup.com/>.

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REVIEW IN A LIBRARY DATABASE

Citations for reviews in library or subscription databases can include the following elements. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the periodical's characteristics and the type of subscriptiong (library or personal). The list below shows citation elements for a library database with reviews that also appear in print format. See the MLA handbook and other examples on this page for details about elements to include for various types of periodicals.
•  Name of the reviewer (last name, first name) -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Maurice Keen).
•  Title of the review (enclosed in quotation marks), if there is one. -- Put a period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Rev. of (do not underline or enclose in quotation marks) -- followed by a space.
•  Title of the work being reviewed -- followed by a comma. Punctuate titles according to kind (e.g., use quotation marks for short story titles, underline book titles, etc.). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  The word by, and the name of the author (in standard name order) for the piece being reviewed -- followed by a period. If the work of someone other than an author is being reviewed (e.g., an editor, translator, director, etc.), use the appropriate abbreviation, such as ed., trans., or dir. For a review of a performance, see the MLA handbook for details.
•  If the review addresses more than one work, list titles and authors in the order given in the review.
•  Title of the periodical (underlined) -- followed by a space. Omit introductory articles and capitalize all principal words.
•  Publication information for the periodical -- followed by a period. See the MLA handbook and the guidelines given in other sections concerning publication information for various types of periodicals (e.g., when to use volume & issue numbers, how to format dates, etc.).
For the publication date, use either the electronic publication date, the latest update, or the posting date -- followed by a period. Choose the date that will best help the readers of your bibliography.
•  Name of the database (underlined) -- followed by a period.
•  Name of the service or vendor from which the library gets the database (e.g., EBSCO, Gale Group, ProQuest, etc.) -- followed by a period. Note: Usually the service/vendor has an icon on the database's search page.
•  Name of the library -- followed by a comma.
•  Location of the library (city or state abbreviation or both if helpful) -- followed by a period.
•  Date the review was accessed (date when you found the article in the database) in day, month, year order (e.g., 29 Apr. 2003) -- followed by a space unless you are unable to locate the service's/vendor's home page (see below). If the access date is the last entry in your citation, follow it with a period.
•  URL for the service's/vendor's home page, if possible (enclosed in angle brackets) -- followed by a period.
EXAMPLE CITATIONS

Bracke, Marianne Stowell. empty spaceRev. of World Agriculture and the Environment: A Commodity-by-Commodity Guide to Impacts and Practices, by Jason Clay. empty spaceLibrary Journal 129.2 (2004): 116. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Dick Smith Lib., Stephenville, TX. empty space11 Feb. 2004 <http://www.epnet.com/>.

Reitz, Wayne. Rev. of empty spaceMaterials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, by W.D. Callister. Materials and Manufacturing Processes empty space18 (2003): 323-324. dekker.com. dekker eBooks. Dick Smith Lib., Stephenville, TX. empty space11 Feb. 2004 <http://www.ebooks.dekker.com/>.

Spira, Marcia K.empty spaceRev. of Gerontological Social Work Practice: Issues, Challenges, and Potentia, eds. Edid Opal Cox, Elizabeth Kelchner, and Rosemary Chapin.empty space Families in Society 84 (2003): 451. ProQuest Psychology Journals. ProQuest. Dick Smith Lib., Stephenville, TX. empty space11 Feb. 2004 <http://www.il.proquest.com/>.



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OTHER INTERNET RESOURCES -- Rules & Examples

Online (electronic) materials come in a wide variety of forms and formats with varying degrees of accessibility and longevity. Also, online materials have not evolved to include standardized pieces of information like print materials have. Therefore, supplying all the desired information about an online item is sometimes not possible. Still, guidelines have been developed listing the ideal citation contents for online materials.

The sections below give citation information for the following types of online materials:
document in a database/project,
article in an online periodical,
review in an online periodical,
entire online book,
part of an online book, and
personal homepage
.

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DOCUMENT IN A FREELY ACCESSIBLE DATABASE/PROJECT

Citations for online documents (articles, poems, short stories, etc.) in a database or scholarly project that does not require a subscription can contain the following information. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the document's characteristics and the amount of information available about the database or scholarly project. See the MLA handbook for more details.
•  Name of the author (last name, first name) of the document -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Toni Bambara).
•  Title of the document (enclosed in quotation marks) -- Put a period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Name of the editor, compiler, or translator of the document (if relevant) -- preceded by appropriate abbreviation and followed by a period.
•  Publication information for the print version of the document (if relevant) -- See the MLA handbook and other sections for citation information for various types of sources.
•  Title of the database or project (underlined) -- followed by period. Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Name of the editor of the database or project (if given) -- preceded by Ed. and followed by a period.
•  Version number, if relevant and not part of the database's/project's title -- followed by a period.
•  Date (if given) of the electronic publication, of the latest update, or of posting -- followed by a period. Choose the date that will best help the people using your bibliography. Write the date in day, month, year order (e.g., 29 Apr. 2003).
•  Name of the sponsoring institution or organization -- followed by a comma. NOTE: If location (see below) is not given or undeterminable, put a period after the name of the sponsoring institution or organization.
•  Location of the sponsoring institution or organization (city, state abbreviation) -- followed by a period.
•  Date the document was accessed (date when you found the document) -- followed by a space. Write the date in day, month, year order (e.g., 29 Apr. 2003).
•  URL for the specific document or URL for the database's/project's search page if the document's URL is not available (enclosed in angle brackets) -- followed by a period.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Kemble, E. W. "Illustrating Huckleberry Finn." empty spaceThe Electronic Text Center. Ed. David Seaman. 1997. Alderman Lib., U of Virginia. empty space30 Apr. 2003 <http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/KemIllu.html>.

"Selected Seventeenth-Century Events." Romantic Chronology. empty spaceEd. Laura Mandell and Alan Liu. Oct. 1996. U of California, Santa Barbara. empty space20 Apr. 2003 <http://english.ucsb.edu:591/rchrono/default.htm>.

"Symbiosis." UCMP Glossary. Ed. Allen Collins et al. Oct. 1995. empty spaceU of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley. empty space19 June 1998 <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5ecol.html
>.
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ARTICLE IN A FREE ONLINE PERIODICAL

Citations for an article in an online periodical that does not require a subscription can contain the following information. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the article's and periodical's characteristics. See the MLA handbook other examples on this page for details about elements to include for various types of periodicals.
•  Name of the author (last name, first name) of the article -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Betty Carter).
•  Title of the article (enclosed in quotation marks) -- Put a period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Title of the periodical (underlined) -- followed by a space. Omit introductory articles and capitalize all principal words.
•  Publication information for the periodical -- followed by a period. See the MLA handbook and the guidelines given in other sections concerning publication information for various types of periodicals (e.g., when to use volume & issue numbers, how to format dates, etc.).
For the publication date, use either the electronic publication date, the latest update, or the posting date -- followed by a period. Choose the date that will best help the readers of your bibliography.
•  Page number range or total number of pages or paragraphs, if they are numbered -- followed by a period. See the MLA handbook for more details.
•  Date the article was accessed (date when you found the article) -- followed by a space. Write the date in day, month, year order (e.g., 29 Apr. 2003).
•  URL for the specific article or URL for the periodical's search page if the article's URL is not available (enclosed in angle brackets) -- followed by a period.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Calabrese, Michael. empty space"Between Despair and Ecstasy: Marco Polo's Life of the Buddha." Exemplaria 9.1 (1997). 22 June 1998 empty space<http://web.english.ufl.edu/english/exemplaria/calax.htm>.

Markoff, John. empty space"The Voice on the Phone Is Not Human, but It's Helpful." New York Times on the Web 21 June 1998. 25 June 1998 empty space<http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/06/biztech/articles/21voice.html>.

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REVIEW IN A FREE ONLINE PERIODICAL

Citations for reviews in online periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers, etc.) that do not require subscriptions will include the following elements plus information about the online periodical. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the periodical's characteristics. See the MLA handbook and other examples on this page for details about elements to include for various types of periodicals.
•  Name of the reviewer (last name, first name) -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Maurice Keen).
•  Title of the review (enclosed in quotation marks), if there is one. -- Put a period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Rev. of (do not underline or enclose in quotation marks) -- followed by a space.
•  Title of the work being reviewed -- followed by a comma. Punctuate titles according to kind (e.g., use quotation marks for short story titles, underline book titles, etc.). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  The word by, and the name of the author (in standard name order) for the piece being reviewed -- followed by a period. If the work of someone other than an author is being reviewed (e.g., an editor, translator, director, etc.), use the appropriate abbreviation, such as ed., trans., or dir. For a review of a performance, see the MLA handbook for details.
•  If the review addresses more than one work, list titles and authors in the order given in the review.
•  Title of the periodical (underlined) -- followed by a space. Omit introductory articles and capitalize all principal words.
•  Publication information for the periodical -- followed by a period. See the MLA handbook and the guidelines given in other sections concerning publication information for various types of periodicals (e.g., when to use volume & issue numbers, how to format dates, etc.).
For the publication date, use either the electronic publication date, the latest update, or the posting date -- followed by a period. Choose the date that will best help the readers of your bibliography.
•  Date the review was accessed (date when you found the review) -- followed by a space. Write the date in day, month, year order (e.g., 27 Apr. 2003).
•  URL for the specific review or URL for the periodical's search page if the review's URL is not available (enclosed in angle brackets) -- followed by a period.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Blanchard, Ian. empty spaceRev. of A History of Business in Medieval Europe, 1200-1550, by Edwin Hunt and James Murray. Medieval Review 02.02.01 (2002). empty space27 Apr. 2003 <http://www.hti.umich.edu/t/tmr/>.

Mamigonian, Marc A. empty spaceRev. of America On Film: Hollywood and American History, by Kenneth Cameron. Boston Book Review 1 Dec. 1997. empty space3 May 2003 <http://www.bookwire.com/bookwire/perlscript/review.pl?5601>.

"Vital Statistics." empty spaceRev. of Advanced LINUX Networking, by Roderick W. Smith. Electronic Review of Computer Books 28 Mar. 2003. empty space1 May 2003 <http://www.ercb.com/feature/feature.0070.html>.

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ENTIRE ONLINE BOOK (URL Accessible)

Citations for entire online books generally follow the guidelines for citing print books, but also include additional information about the online version. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the book's characteristics. For more details, see the MLA handbook and guidelines given on this page for book citations and online materials citations (subscription and free).
•  Author's name (last name, first name) -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Robert F. Barsky).
If no author is given, but an editor, compiler, or translator is given, cite that person's name followed by the appropriate abbreviation (ed., comp., or trans.)
•  Title of the book (underlined) -- followed by a period. Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Name of the editor, translator, or compiler (if relevant) -- preceded by the appropriate abbreviation (e.g., Ed., Trans., Comp.) and followed by a period.
•  Edition used (e.g., 2nd, 4th, Rev., Expanded) -- followed by the abbreviation ed and a period.
•  Title of the series -- followed by a period.
•  Publication information, if given, for the print version of the book (e.g., place of publication, name of publisher, year of publication). See the MLA handbook and other sections for specific information about book citations.
•  Electronic publication information -- See the MLA handbook and other sections for guidelines concerning citation elements to include for online materials based on the type of access (i.e., subscription or free access).
•  Date the book was accessed (date when you found the book) -- followed by a space. Write the date in day, month, year order (e.g., 29 Apr. 2003).
•  URL for the specific book, or URL for the site's search page if the book's URL is not available (enclosed in angle brackets) -- followed by a period.
•  If some of the preceding information is not available, cite what is available. Always consult the MLA handbook for specific explanations and information.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Barsky, Robert F. empty spaceNoam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent. Cambridge: MIT P, 1997. 8 May 1998 <http://mitpress.mit.edu/e-books/chomsky/>.

Robinson, Mary. empty spaceSappho and Phaon: In a Series of Legitimate Sonnets, with Thoughts on Poetical Subjects, and Anecdotes of the Grecian Poetess. empty spaceLondon, 1796. Electronic Text Center. Ed. David Seaman. 2002. Alderman Lib., U of Virginia. 19 June 2002 empty space<http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/britpo/sappho/sappho.html>.

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PART OF AN ONLINE BOOK (URL Accessible)

Citations for a part of an online book follow the guidelines for citing an online book and add the author and title of the part being cited. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the characteristics of the part and the book. For more details, see the MLA handbook and the guidelines given for book citations and online materials citations (subscription and free).
•  Name of the author of the part being cited (last name, first name) -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Robert F. Barsky).
If no author is given, but an editor, compiler, or translator is given, cite that person's name followed by the appropriate abbreviation (ed., comp., or trans.)
•  Title of the part being cited. Punctuate the title according to its kind (e.g., quotation marks for essays, poems, and short stories; underlining for movies and plays) -- followed by a period. If quotations marks are used for the title, put the period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Title of the book (underlined) -- followed by a period. Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Name of the author of the book (in standard name order) -- preceded by the word By and followed by a period.
Note: If you are citing an introduction, preface, and so on that was written by the author of the book, use only the last name after By. See the MLA handbook for more details.
•  Name of the editor, translator, or compiler (if relevant) -- preceded by the appropriate abbreviation (e.g., Ed., Trans., Comp.) and followed by a period.
•  Edition used (e.g., 2nd, 4th, Rev., Expanded) -- followed by the abbreviation ed and a period.
•  Title of the series -- followed by a period.
•  Publication information, if given, for the print version of the book (e.g., place of publication, name of publisher, year of publication). See the MLA handbook and other sections for specific information about book citations.
•  Electronic publication information -- See the MLA handbook and other sections for guidelines concerning citation elements to include for online materials based on the type of access (i.e., subscription or free access).
•  Date the part was accessed (date when you found the part) -- followed by a space. Write the date in day, month, year order (e.g., 29 Apr. 2003).
•  URL for the part of the book being cited, if it differs from the URL for the book. Otherwise, use the URL for the book or the URL for the site's search page if the book's URL is not available (enclosed in angle brackets) -- followed by a period.
•  If some of the preceding information is not available, cite what is available. Always consult the MLA handbook for specific explanations and information.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Barsky, Robert F. Introduction. empty spaceNoam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent. By Barsky. Cambridge: MIT P, 1997. 8 May 1998 empty space<http://mitpress.mit.edu/e-books/chomsky/intro.html>.

Robinson, Mary. Preface. empty spaceSappho and Phaon: In a Series of Legitimate Sonnets, with Thoughts on Poetical Subjects, and Anecdotes of the Grecian Poetess. empty spaceLondon, 1796. Electronic Text Center. Ed. David Seaman. 2002. Alderman Lib., U of Virginia. 19 June 2002 empty space<http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/britpo/sappho/sappho-preface.html>.

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PERSONAL HOME PAGE (URL Accessible)

Citations for a personal home page do not require very many elements as shown in the following list. However, if the web page you are citing is actually a previously published article, a part of an larger project, or another type of online document, consult the MLA handbook and the guidelines given on this page for online materials citations (subscription and free).
•  Name of the person who created the page (last name, first name) -- followed by a period.
Additional creators, if present, are listed in standard name order (e.g., Robert F. Barsky).
•  Title of the page (underlined) -- followed by a period. Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
If there is no title, use the work Home page (neither underlined nor enclosed in in quotation marks) -- followed by a period.
•  Date the page was last updated or the posting date -- followed by a period.
•  Date the page was accessed (date when you found the page) -- followed by a space. Write the date in day, month, year order (e.g., 29 Apr. 2003).
•  URL for the page (enclosed in angle brackets) -- followed by a period.
•  If some of the preceding information is not available, cite what is available. Always consult the MLA handbook for specific explanations and information.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Barsky, Robert F. Introduction. empty spaceNoam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent. By Barsky. Cambridge: MIT P, 1997. 8 May 1998 empty space<http://mitpress.mit.edu/e-books/chomsky/intro.html>.

Robinson, Mary. Preface. empty spaceSappho and Phaon: In a Series of Legitimate Sonnets, with Thoughts on Poetical Subjects, and Anecdotes of the Grecian Poetess. empty spaceLondon, 1796. Electronic Text Center. Ed. David Seaman. 2002. Alderman Lib., U of Virginia. 19 June 2002 empty space<http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/britpo/sappho/sappho-preface.html>.

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COMPILATIONS/ANTHOLOGIES -- Rules & Examples

The number of elements in citations for compilations and anthologies is based on whether
• the entire work is cited,
• only a portion of the compilation/anthology is cited, or
• the portion being cited was previously published.

The sections below show rules and examples for each citation type.

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ENTIRE COMPILATION OR ANTHOLOGY

Citations for an entire compilation or anthology follow basic book citation format and can give the following information. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the compilation's/anthology's characteristics. See the MLA handbook for more details.
•  Editor's or compiler's name (last name, first name) -- followed by a comma.
Additional editors are listed in standard name order (e.g., David Neal Miller).
•  The abbreviation ed. and/or comp. (eds. for multiple editors; comps. for multiple compilers).
•  Title of the compilation/anthology (underlined) -- followed by a period. Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Edition used (e.g., 2nd, 4th, Rev., Expanded) -- followed by the abbreviation ed and a period.
•  Number(s) of the volume(s) used -- followed by a period.
If you use two or more volumes of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes.
If you use only one volume of a multivolume work, state the number of the volume (e.g., Vol. 2) -- followed by a period.
•  Title of the series -- followed by a period.
•  Place (city) of publication -- followed by a colon.
•  Name of publisher (shortened according to MLA handbook guidelines) -- followed by a comma.
•  Year of publication, followed by a period.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Lambropoulos, Vassilis, and David Neal Miller, eds. Twentieth Century empty spaceLiterary Theory: An Introduction Anthology. Albany: State U of New York P, 1987.

Stafford, Peter, comp. and ed. Interference: The Story of empty spaceCzechoslovakia in the Words of Its Writers. Cheltenham: New Clarion, 1992.
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WORK WITHIN A COMPILATION OR ANTHOLOGY

Citations for a work (essay, short story, poem, etc.) within a compilation or anthology must give information about the work being cited and information about the compilation or anthology. The citation can contain the following elements. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the compilation's/anthology's characteristics. See the MLA handbook for more details.
•  Name of the author (last name, first name) of the work in the compilation/anthology -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Toni Bambara).
•  Title of the work being cited. Punctuate the title according to its kind (e.g., quotation marks for essays, poems, and short stories; underlining for movies and plays) -- followed by a period. If quotations marks are used for the title, put the period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Title of the compilation/anthology (underlined) -- followed by a period. Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Name of the editor or compiler (in standard name order) -- preceded by Ed. or Comp. and followed by a period (e.g., Ed. Victor Gong).
Additional editors are also listed. See the MLA handbook for details.
•  Edition used (e.g., 2nd, 4th, Rev., Expanded) -- followed by the abbreviation ed and a period.
•  Number(s) of the volume(s) used -- followed by a period.
If you use two or more volumes of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes.
If you use only one volume of a multivolume work, state the number of the volume (e.g., Vol. 2) -- followed by a period.
•  Title of the series -- followed by a period.
•  Place (city) of publication -- followed by a colon.
•  Name of publisher (shortened according to MLA handbook guidelines) -- followed by a comma.
•  Year of publication -- followed by a period.
•  Page numbers of the cited work within the compilation/anthology -- followed by a period. See the MLA handbook for specific rules regarding page numbers.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Rubinstein, Arye. "Children with AIDS and the Public Risk." empty spaceAIDS: Facts and Issues. Ed. Victor Gong and Norman Rudnick. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1986. 99-103.

Thomas, Lewis. "Computers." The Penguin Book of empty spaceContemporary American Essays. Ed. Maureen Howard. New York: Penguin, 1985. 153-55.
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WORK REPRINTED IN A COMPILATION OR ANTHOLOGY

Citations for a work (essay, short story, poem, etc.) within a compilation or anthology that was previously printed must give information about the previous publication, the work being cited, and the compilation/anthology. The citation can contain the following elements. The actual number of items in a citation is determined by the compilation's/anthology's characteristics. See the MLA handbook for more details.
•  Name of the author (last name, first name) of the work in the compilation/anthology -- followed by a period.
Additional authors are listed in standard name order (e.g., Frederick Douglass).
•  Title of the part being cited. Punctuate the title according to its kind (e.g., quotation marks for essays, poems, and short stories; underlining for movies and plays) -- followed by a period. If quotations marks are used for the title, put the period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Title of the previous publication and all its identifying information (e.g., journal title & publication information or book title & publication information) -- followed by a period. Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Rpt. in (stands for reprinted in).
•  Title of the compilation/anthology (underlined) -- followed by a period. Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
•  Name of the editor or compiler (in standard name order) -- preceded by Ed. or Comp. and followed by a period (e.g., Ed. Victor Gong).
Additional editors are also listed. See the MLA handbook for details.
•  Edition used (e.g., 2nd, 4th, Rev., Expanded) -- followed by the abbreviation ed and a period.
•  Number(s) of the volume(s) used -- followed by a period.
If you use two or more volumes of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes.
If you use only one volume of a multivolume work, state the number of the volume (e.g., Vol. 2) -- followed by a period.
•  Title of the series -- followed by a period.
•  Place (city) of publication -- followed by a colon.
•  Name of publisher (shortened according to MLA handbook guidelines) -- followed by a comma.
•  Year of publication -- followed by a period.
•  Page numbers of the cited work within the compilation/anthology -- followed by a period. See the MLA handbook for specific rules regarding page numbers.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Liebert, Herman W. "Reflections on Samuel Johnson." empty spaceJournal of English and German Philology 47 (1948): 84-88. Rpt. in Samuel Johnson: A Collection of Critical Essays. empty spaceEd. Donald J. Greene. Twentieth Century Views. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1965. 15-21.

Roberts, Sheila. "A Confined World: A Rereading of Pauline Smith." empty space World Literature Written in English 24 (1984): 232-38. Rpt. in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. empty spaceEd. Dennis Poupard. Vol. 25. Detroit: Gale, 1988. 399-402.
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INTERVIEWS-- Rules & Examples

Interviews generally appear in three forms: published or recorded interviews, television or radio interviews, and interviews conducted by the researcher. Citations for interview types include elements indicating their type. The following guidelines list the elements of all three types. Only include elements relevant to the interview you are citing.

Published or broadcast interviews:
•  Name of the person interviewed (last name, first name) -- followed by a period.
Additional interviewees are listed in standard name order (e.g., Elie Wiesel).
•  The title or label for an interview can take several forms:
-- Title of the interview, if it is part of a publication, recording, or program (enclosed in quotation marks) -- Put a period before the closing quotation mark, unless the title has its own closing punctuation (e.g., question mark). Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
--Title of the interview (underlined), if published separately -- followed by a period. Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words in titles and subtitles.
--The word Interview (not underlined or enclosed in quotation marks) if the interview is untitled. The interviewer's name can be added if known and pertinent to your paper -- followed by a period.
•  Publication information relevant to the source in which the interview appeared or was broadcast -- followed by a period. See the MLA handbook and the guidelines given in other sections concerning publication information for books, periodicals, and online materials.

Interviews conducted by the researcher:
•  Name of the person interviewed (last name, first name) -- followed by a period.
Additional interviewees are listed in standard name order (e.g., Elie Wiesel).
•  Label indicating kind of interview (e.g., Personal interview, Telephone interview, E-mail interview, etc.) -- followed by a period.
•  Date of the interview -- followed by a period.

EXAMPLE CITATIONS
Ackroyd, Peter. Interview. empty spaceBold Type. Nov. 2001. 25 June 2002 <http://www.randomhouse.com/boldtype/1101/ackroyd/interview.html>.

Blacksmun, Harry. empty spaceInterview with Ted Koppel and Nina Totenberg. Nightline. ABC. WABC, New York. 5 Apr. 1994.

Lansbury, Angela. Interview. empty spaceOff-Camera: Conversations with the Makers of Prime-Time Television. By Richard Levinson and William Link. empty spaceNew York: Plume-NAL, 1986. 72-86.

Michener, James. Personal interview. 4 Oct. 1984.

Rowling, J. K. E-mail interview. 8-12 May 2002.

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