Research in Music Education I

MUSC 5341


Tarleton State University

Instructor:  Dr. Vicky V. Johnson   254/968-9238 (Office)

  Course Outline

  Syllabus    Links    Tech Help    Assignments    Discussions    Course Readings    Writing

Week #

Week Dates

All are Mon-Sun

Topic for Study



@ Midnight



@ Midnight

1Jan 14 - Jan 20

Introduction to Research

Discussion 1

Roger Bacon

Post: Fri Jan 18

Resp.: Sun Jan 20

Assignment 1

PowerPoint Introduction

Sun Jan 20
2Jan 21 - Jan 27


Discussion 2

How can research benefit you?

Post: Fri Jan 25

Resp.: Sun Jan 27

Assignment 2


Sun Jan 27
3Jan 28 - Feb 3

Writing about Music

Discussion 3

CD Title

Post: Fri Jan 30

Resp.: Sun Feb 3

Assignment 3

Record review

Sun Feb 3
4Feb 4 - Feb 10


How to Find Stuff

Discussion 4


Post: Fri Feb 8

Resp.: Sun Feb 10

Assignment 4

Games and databases

Sun Feb 10
5Feb 11 - Feb 17

Research Topic

Discussion 5

Research topic

Post: Fri Feb 15

Resp.: Sun Feb 17

Assignment 5

5 Articles

Sun Feb 17
6Feb 18 - Feb 24

Types of Research

Discussion 6


Post: Fri Feb 22

Resp.: Sun Feb 24

Assignment 6

Annotated Bibliography

Sun Feb 24
7Feb 25 - Mar 3

Parts of a Research Paper

Discussion 7

Annotated Bibliography

Post: Fri Feb 29

Resp.: Sun Mar 3

Assignment 7

Literature Review

Sun Mar 3
8Mar 4 - Mar 10

Research Proposal Draft

Discussion 8

Literature Review

Post: Fri Mar 8

Resp.: Sun Mar 10

Assignment 8

Research Proposal Draft

Sun Mar 10
9Mar 11 - Mar 17

Revise Research Proposal

Discussion 9

Proposal Critiques

Post: Fri Mar 15

Resp.: Sun Mar 17

Assignment 9

Revise Research Proposal

Sun Mar 17
10Mar 18 - Mar 24

Final Research Proposal

Discussion 10

Course Reflections

Post: Fri Mar 22

Resp.: Sun Mar 24

Assignment 10

Final Research Proposal

Sun Mar 24


Week 1

Jan 14- Jan 20


Greetings online students!  


Welcome to Research in Music Education I 


Please follow the link to review the Syllabus which contains grading and policy information.  Let me know if you have any questions.  Unless they refer to personal matters or grading issues, a good place to ask questions is the "Ask Dr. J" section in the Discussion forum in Blackboard. 


Please read these instructions about the Discussions


On this Course Outline page, you will find links to the lectures for each week, as well as any general announcements to the class.   The animated bullets to the right will designate "action" items, so be sure you accomplish these each week.  There is an overview calendar at the top of this page for quick reference. 


Be aware that this is an organic document.  It WILL change.  You are responsible for what is on this page, not a hard copy that you printed off in the first week of the course.




If you come across mistakes in the web pages in this course or dead links, I would appreciate it if you would let me know!





Now, click in to the first lecture, and let's get started!


Lecture:  Introduction to Music Research


PowerPoint Tips

  • Don't choose a background that fights your content. In other words, text should be plain and readable. Don't use red on blue or blue on red. That makes 3-D craziness.
  • Make sure the photos or graphics you choose are not fuzzy or "pixelly" when sized to your choice.
  • Don't use a lot of animation - words and pictures flying in and out. A little of that goes a long way. A little is interesting. A lot is distracting and annoying.
  • More slides with less text per slide is better than lots of text per slide.
  • Proof-read your slides for punctuation, syntax, spelling, and grammar.
  • Above all, help us to get to know you!


If you have any questions, remember to use the 'Ask Dr. J' forum under 'Discussions.'  Others probably have the same questions you do.



Blackboard/Computer configuration

  1. Click on "My Blackboard" (upper right of your screen) to go back to the first screen.  Click on "Check Browser" and follow the instructions.

  2. Follow this link to familiarize yourself with the Blackboard interface.

  3. Then take the Blackboard Orientation Quiz. You will find it under the Assessment Tab.  You will receive a grade, but the grade will not count in the course grading system.

  4. Set your Blackboard email to forward to the email address you check most often.  This is very important for timely communication!  Instructions are linked on Blackboard below the Course Outline link




There will be no reading assignment this week.  Make sure you have your textbook ready for the first reading assignment next week.  See the Syllabus for information about the textbook and other required materials.


Assignment 1: 


Create a PowerPoint presentation with your photo and name on the first slide, then a biographical outline on subsequent slides.  Include your present status, your musical background and education, what your hopes are in music education, and any additional information you deem appropriate.  Feel free to include personal information also, including family, hobbies, and other significant influences in your life. 


Submit your presentation as an attachment in the Discussion tab in Blackboard by midnight on Sunday.  Please view these as they are posted by your classmates and feel free to respond.  This assignment will only be graded for completion and will not receive a numerical grade.


For those of you who just completed MUSC 540, you may certainly use the same PowerPoint you used last semester.  However, please take this opportunity to improve your presentation based upon my comments and what you learned from your final PowerPoint project.  If I recall correctly, most were too short and/or did not include enough visuals!


Notes on Assignment 1

Some of you may have experience using PowerPoint, but some may not.  The purpose of this assignment is two-fold:

  1. Pictures speak louder than words.  An online class depends upon interaction for an optimal learning experience.  Your biographical presentation will help us all to connect with you personally and with your unique experiences in music education.

  2. Everyone should know how to put together an effective PowerPoint presentation.  As a scholar, there will be times that you need to 'present' your work.  The goal here is effective communication in a professional manner.  However, that does not mean it should be boring!  You are all creative musicians.  Channel that creativity into this introductory project.

Discussion 1: 


After reading Lecture 1, relate an example for each of Roger Bacon's "4 Chief Obstacles to the Truth."  I have provided one example for each in the lecture notes.  Try to be as specific as possible, with a personal example or one you have observed.  Your original discussion post should completely answer the question; provide 4 examples.  For your responses, analyze your peers' examples for accurate categorization and offer additional comments.


See the rubric in the Discussion section for point values.  The sooner you post your original answer, the more points you get.  The deadline for all responses is Sunday at midnight.


Please review all instructions about the Discussions before posting.


Week 2 

Jan 21 - Jan 27



After reading your assigned material for this week, please go back to Lecture 1 and review the introductory material on Research.  Has your perception  of research changed since you read it the first time?



Lecture:  Writing



Heads up!:
Begin compiling a Glossary of Research Terminology - this will be an ongoing project throughout the course to be turned in at the end of Week 9.  You will be graded on the thoroughness and usability of your document.


There is a lot of reading and a sizable assignment for next week.  Feel free to work ahead to manage your time!



·       Bellman, Chapter 6, “Research in Music,” pp. 92-115.



Assignment 2: 


Complete the Assignment 2 Worksheet after you have completed the assigned reading.


Submit your paper in Word document form as an attachment in the Assignment tab in Blackboard.  Name the file Assignment2_YourName (substituting your name, of course ;-) and submit by the deadline on Sunday at midnight.


Note the "Heads up" to your left.  Start that assignment now to turn in later.


Discussion 2: 


You are all music teachers or plan to be music teachers.  How can learning to read research and learning to do research be of benefit to you in your music education career?  I encourage you to go beyond your "off the cuff" answers by doing some research!  See what's out there on this topic and synthesize that with your own experiences and expertise to answer the question.  Give some examples of research you have read and/or used.


See the rubric in the Discussion section for point values.  The sooner you post your original answer, the more points you get.  The deadline for all responses is Sunday at midnight.


Week 3

Jan 28 - Feb 3 




For your assignment this week, I will not be particularly picky about formatting.

That begins next week!!

Keep in mind these memorable quotes from your reading:

  • "One of the most basic rules of writing is that an author never make statements he or she is not prepared to defend." (p. 4)

  • "Readers have a right to believe that what they are reading is based on more than the author's opinion, even when it is clearly an opinion piece." (p. 17)

  • "Those authors "who merely vent unfounded opinions and gut feelings (in essence, running off at the pen) are wasting the reader's time." (p. 17)

  • "never make the reader doubt your ability." (p. 18)

  • "Make it concise, make it elegant, make it compelling." (p. 20)

  • "The primary requirements for writing about music are clear listening and thinking, knowledge of one's audience, and an awareness of one's own limitations." (p. 39)

Assignment Grading and Feedback



Note:  When you view your papers that I have graded, make sure that you can see my comments written in the margins of your papers (not just at the end).  On your ‘Review’ tab in Word, make sure ‘Final Showing Markup’ is selected so my comments will be visible.  If you don't see the "balloons" in the margins, then you don't have it set correctly to read my comments.  It should look something like this:






  1. Bellman, Chapter 1, “Writing about Music,” pp. 1-20.

  2. Bellman, Chapter 2, “Writing about Music by, and for, Those Who Cannot (Necessarily) Read It,” pp. 21-39.

  3. Bellman, Chapter 4, “Three Kinds of Practical Writing,” pp. 56-71.



Assignment 3:  Record Review


The Tarleton library provides students access to the "Classical Music Library" database.  (Go to the Tarleton library database list at and choose "Classical Music Library."


Browse the database and select one CD.  Write a concise but informative review of 750 - 1000 words in length.  In your review, provide some background on the performers in not more than 1-2 paragraphs, and then discuss the content of the recording under discussion. Make sure to comment on all pieces on the album, although the amount of space devoted to each track need not be of equal length. If the CD you have chosen contains compositions that you think are familiar to most of your readers, you don’t need to provide background information on those pieces; instead, focus on the specific interpretations presented on your CD. If you are reviewing new music or a repertoire that might not be commonly known, be sure to discuss the actual compositions and tell your readers whether or not you think these pieces are interesting. Do not limit your opinions to general statements about your preferences; instead, try to determine if the music has any value that might satisfy some readers and combine these observations with your judgments based on taste.


Please do not use a recording that you already have.  Part of the assignment is for you to familiarize yourself with the assigned database resource.


I am looking for a review that can be read and understood by someone who likes classical music, but who does not necessarily have formal musical training.  This assignment is to test your general writing skills before adding formatting requirements.


Submit your paper in Word document form.  Name the file Assignment3_YourName and submit by the deadline on Sunday at midnight.


Discussion 3: 


Post the title of the CD you have chosen for this week's assignment.  Describe it briefly and tell why you chose it.  Identify at least one thing that surprised you or that you found interesting after listening to the CD for the first time. 


This discussion will not be graded, but will be marked for completion.  You are encouraged to respond to your classmates' posts.  Post by Friday at midnight and respond by Sunday at midnight.


Week 4

Feb 4 - Feb 10 


 Lecture:  APA Style and Formatting





Lecture:  How to Find Stuff



For next week, be thinking about choosing a research topic.



Bellman, Chapter 8, “Style,” pp. 135-160

APA Manual, pp. 87-114


Assignment 4: 


A.  After completing your reading assignment, play the following games:

error detection exercise about APA formatting.

APA Psych Out (play at least 4 times)

APA Citation Game (all of the APA links in the Citation Game Index, but not the MLA ones)

This assignment will not be graded, but you are responsible for the information learned in the exercises.


B.  Complete the Assignment 4 Worksheet.   


Submit your paper in Word document form.  Name the file Assignment4_YourName and submit by the deadline on Sunday at midnight.



Discussion 4:


Everyone is pretty tech-savvy these days.  I'm sure you have bookmarked some great resources on the internet that would be of interest to your fellow classmates.  List 5 web pages or sites that could be useful in a research endeavor.  They might include sources of data, instructions or how-tos regarding research, link lists, information on music education topics, or any page that would be a worthy bookmark for this course.   For each link, give the URL, a brief description of the site/page, and why it would be useful in carrying on music education research.


Post your list in the Discussion tab.  This discussion will be graded for completion only.  Responses are not required, but are encouraged.


Week 5

Feb 11 - Feb 17


From this point forward, be sure to format everything in APA Style. 


Refer to your APA Style manual for all of those devilish details!

Here is a template to assist you:


APA Writing Template

Also see the example in your APA manual beginning on p. 41.


Note:  If you have trouble finding any of the course readings, post your question in the Ask Dr. J forum.  For these questions, I'm going to ask your classmates to give you some assistance, so if you can offer some help, please do so.  Don't post a direct URL link to help others, but offer directions on how to find the source (or where you found it) if others need assistance.




Lecture:  Research Topic





From the list under Course Reading, choose 5 articles, use the library databases to locate them, and read them.


Assignment 5:


For each reading above, identify the research question.  What is it?  

What is the rationale (why was it worth investigating?) [average 100 words each]


List the readings you chose in correct APA format and answer the questions above for  each reference. 


For examples of correct reference formatting, see your APA Manual section "Examples by Type" beginning on p. 198. 


Submit your paper in Word document form.  Name the file Assignment5_YourName and submit by the deadline on Sunday at midnight.


Discussion 5: 


After reading the lecture for this week, come up with two research topics that you are interested in exploring. For each research topic, devise a research question and explain your rationale. Follow the guidelines included in this week's lecture.  Post this information in the discussion forum. You should respond to your classmates by helping them refine their research questions and to choose which one would work best in a research project. Your Assignment 5 should help you become familiar with the structure of a good research question.


See the rubric in the Discussion section for point values.  The sooner you post your original answer, the more points you get.  The deadline for all responses is Sunday at midnight.


Week 6

Feb 18 - Feb 24


Reread "The Author's Opinion:  Clarity and Restraint" beginning on p. 17 of your text


Lecture:  Types of research


Which type of research would your project be?



Locate and read the following articles to be used in conjunction with Assignment 6.

Broomhead, P. (2001). Individual expressive performance: Its relationship to ensemble achievement, technical achievement, and musical background. Journal of Research in Music Education, 49, 71–84.

Gillespie, R., & Hamann, D. L. (1998). The status of orchestra programs in the public schools. Journal of Research in Music Education, 46, 75–86.

Gruhn, W. (1993). Is Lowell Mason's Manual based on Pestalozzian principles? An inquiry into the controversy of methods in the nineteenth century. Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education, 14, 92–101.

Prickett, C .A., & Bridges, M. S. (2000). A comparison of the basic song repertoire of vocal/choral and instrumental music education majors. Journal of Research in Music Education, 48, 5–9. 

Reimer, B. (1999). Facing the risks of the "Mozart Effect." Music Educators Journal, 86(1), 37–43. 


Assignment 6:


A.  From this week's reading assignment above, identify the type of research employed in each of the 5 articles.


B.  Write and submit an annotated bibliography of at least 5 entries based on your research (1000 words).  These articles should be chosen based upon your topic (don't use the articles in Part A of this week's assignment).


Submit your paper (containing both A and B parts) in Word document form.  Name the file Assignment6_YourName by the deadline on Sunday at midnight.

Discussion 6: 


Choose one of your two research topics from last week.  Give your research project a title.  Post your refined research question and rationale (hopefully, you received some feedback from last week's discussion).  Tell which type of research your topic would require and why.  In responding to others' posts, critique by using your knowledge of different research types and what is required of each type to answer the research question.  Read this information about Critiques before posting.


See the rubric in the Discussion section for point values.  The sooner you post your original answer, the more points you get.  The deadline for all responses is Sunday at midnight.


Week 7

Feb 25 - Mar 3


Lecture:  Parts of a Research Paper




Music Research Journals



APA Manual: Chapter 6 (p. 169-189)


Assignment 7


Write and submit a literature review of at least 6 entries based on your research topic. (2000 words)


Discussion 7:  


Post two samples of your annotated bibliography entries from last week.  Post comments on the sample entries written by your peers.  Review this information about Critiques before posting.


See the rubric in the Discussion section for point values.  The sooner you post your original answer, the more points you get.  The deadline for all responses is Sunday at midnight.


Week 8

Mar 4 - Mar 10


Research Proposal



Remember: When you write your proposal, you don't have findings or discussion yet because you haven't done the research!


Assignment 8


Research proposal first draft (3000 words)


Submit your paper as an attachment to Discussion #9 by the deadline on Sunday at midnight.  I will read through your papers and give some feedback.  However, I will not give you a grade on your proposal until you submit the revised version at the end of Week 10.


The purpose of submitting your proposal in the discussion forum is to allow me and your classmates to offer feedback and constructive criticism prior to submitting this as your final project.  Please do not get confused on the discussion instructions for this week.  You should:

  • Post your literature review under Discussion 8 early in the week and critique your classmates' literature review by Sunday midnight.

  • Post your proposal first draft under Discussion 9 by Sunday midnight


Discussion 8: 


Post your literature review in the discussion forum.  Your grade this week will be based upon your critique of your classmates' lit reviews.  Choose at least three (this is the minimum for your grade, but more feedback is welcome and appreciated) to critique. 


See the rubric in the Discussion section for point values.  The deadline for all responses is Sunday at midnight.



Week 9

Mar 11 - Mar 17


Note:  This week is Spring Break for Tarleton and perhaps for your school as well.  However, since this is only a 10-week class, we will continue to work through this week.


Revise your research proposal



Assignment 9: 

Revise your research proposal

Based upon your classmates' critiques in the discussion forum this week, make revisions to your research proposal.  You will not turn in the revised version until next week.


Turn in your Glossary of Research Terminology (see Week 2).  Submit your paper in Word document form.  Name the file Assignment9_YourName and submit by the deadline on Sunday at midnight.


Discussion 9: 


You should have already posted your research proposal to the discussion forum.  Your discussion grade this week will be based upon your critique of your classmates' proposals.  Choose at least three (this is the minimum for your grade, but more feedback is welcome and appreciated) to critique.


See the rubric in the Discussion section for point values.  The deadline for all responses is Sunday at midnight.


Week 10

Mar 18 - Mar 24

No lecture, reading, or discussion this week.


Final project due


Assignment 10:

Turn in your final research proposal  


Submit your paper in Word document form.  Name the file Assignment10_YourName and submit by the deadline on Sunday at midnight.


Discussion 10: 


Please take this opportunity to share with me and your classmates your reflections regarding this semesters' coursework, the master's program in general, and anything we can do to improve your learning experience as you continue in the program.


This discussion will not be graded, but your participation will be of value to the faculty to continue to improve our program.  Thank you for your feedback!



Blackboard/Computer Configuration


Be sure and configure your computer BEFORE you need to submit an assignment. 


Do not try to use dial-up access for  links and streaming audio.


For tech problems and questions, go to  Tech Help  or call 254/968-1960.  Toll free number is 1-866-744-8900 (Option 3).

Your student fees pay for this service, so CALL THEM!  Post the number by your computer and utilize these experts.  They can remote into your  computer if need be.  Don't be frustrated.  Call them.




Assignment Submission


Submit assignments as  specified in the Course Outline.  Sometimes assignments will be requested as Word documents (to be uploaded as attachments) and other times to be submitted directly into the submission blank.  Do not try to submit any document without saving it first.  Be sure and save it to a folder where you can retrieve it later.  Sometimes resubmissions are necessary.


Save the document as Assignment1_YourName.doc (substituting the correct week and correct assignment number and using your own name :-)


Use a heading at the top of the page of every assignment which includes your name and the assignment number.


Occasionally your assignments may be returned to you for a redo or for revisions.  Make your corrections and resubmit through the Assignment section as before.


 Here's the step-by-step process to submit a Word document assignment:
  1. Click on the ‘Assignments’ tab in the menu to your left.
  2. Click on ‘Assignment 1’
  3. Under ‘Submission,’ click on ‘Add attachments’
  4. Click on ‘Computer’ (it may take a minute to load so that you can see it)
  5. Navigate to wherever you have your file saved and click on that
  6. Click on ‘Open’
  7. It will then be attached and will take you back to the Assignment page. You should see the name of your file just above the ‘Add Attachments’ button.
  8. You can add a comment if you like, but it isn’t required.
  9. Click on ‘Submit’ and you are done.



 It is very important that you name your file according to the instructions above.  Otherwise, I have to rename each file.  So please take a moment to rename the file before submission if you do not name it as above originally.



Research Proposal Rubric



A-level qualities

B-level qualities

C-level qualities

F-level qualities
(below 70)


Builds very effectively on assignments completed during the modules of the course; makes good use of mentor and classmate feedback for an improved product

Builds adequately on assignments completed during the modules of the course; generally makes good use of mentor and classmate comments

Does not build adequately on assignments completed during the modules of the course; these is little evidence that mentor or classmate comments were heeded

Does not build on assignments completed in the course; product digresses or is generally confusing

Application of concepts/Strength of analysis

Applies course concepts extremely effectively, creating a full and informed research proposal; analysis of the problem is sophisticated, accurate, and thorough; discussion is exceptionally skilled

Applies course concepts throughout, creating an effective research proposal; analysis of the problem is insightful and essentially accurate; discussion is skilled

Misapplies course concepts or applies them infrequently; analysis is basic or general; discussion is haphazard or cursory

Fails to apply course concepts; proposal is very poorly executed or completely inadequate; analysis is missing.

Format and Content

Develops proposal as assigned and includes all items in a highly effective manner; develops all items thoroughly

Develops proposal as assigned and includes all items (though some may be developed less effectively than others)

Does not fully develop proposal as assigned; several items are missing or sections include inappropriate information

Proposal is undeveloped or is missing many format items; proposal does not relate to the assignment


Arranges ideas clearly and logically to support the purpose or argument; ideas flow smoothly and are effectively linked; reader can follow the line of reasoning

Arranges ideas adequately to support the purpose or argument; links between ideas are generally clear; reader can follow the line of reasoning for the most part

Arranges ideas adequately, in general, although ideas sometimes fail to make sense together; reader remains fairly clear about what writer intends

Arranges ideas illogically; ideas frequently fail to make sense together; reader cannot identify a line of reasoning and becomes frustrated or loses interest

APA format

Documents sources using APA format accurately and consistently

Documents sources using APA format with minor violations

Reflects incomplete knowledge of APA format

Does not use APA format

Writing mechanics

Writing demonstrates a sophisticated clarity, conciseness, and correctness

Writing is accomplished in terms of clarity and conciseness and contains only a few errors

Writing lacks clarity or conciseness and contains numerous errors

Writing is unfocused, rambling, or contains serious errors


Course Readings

Abrahams, F. (2005). The application of critical pedagogy to music teaching and learning: A literature review. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 23(2), 12-22.

Abril, C. R., & Gault, B. M. (2008). The state of music in secondary schools: The principal's perspective. Journal of Research in Music Education, 56(1), 68-81. doi: 10.1177/0022429408317516

Creech, A., & Hallam, S. (2009). Interaction in instrumental learning: The influence of interpersonal dynamics on parents. International Journal of Music Education, 27(2), 94-106. doi: 10.1177/0255761409102318

de Vries, P. (2011). An 8-year-old’s engagement with preferred music: A case study. Research Studies in Music Education. doi: 10.1177/1321103x11424195

Ester, D. P. (2004). Raising the standards music teacher education in a performance-based world. Journal of Music Teacher Education, 14(1), 34-38. doi: 10.1177/10570837040140010107

Fredrickson, W. E., & Hackworth, R. S. (2005). Analysis of first-year music teachers' advice to music education students. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 23(2), 4-11.

Hanna, W. (2007). The new Bloom's taxonomy: Implications for music education. Arts Education Policy Review, 108(4), 7-16.

Harris, E. L. (2006). Teaching music theory in the traditional wind band rehearsal: A rationale, survey of materials, and recommendations. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and These database. (UMI No. 1379527961)

Jellison, J. A. (2005). It's about time. Arts Education Policy Review, 106(5), 29-36. 

Jones, P. M. (2006). Returning music education to the mainstream: Reconnecting with the community. Visions of Research in Music Education, 7(January 2006).

Juchniewicz, J. (2010). The influence of social intelligence on effective music teaching. Journal of Research in Music Education, 58(3), 276-293. doi: 10.1177/0022429410378368

Kindall-Smith, M., McKoy, C. L., & Mills, S. W. (2011). Challenging exclusionary paradigms in the traditional musical canon: Implications for music education practice. International Journal of Music Education, 29(4), 374-386. doi: 10.1177/0255761411421075

Liljeström, S., Juslin, P. N., & Västfjäll, D. (2012). Experimental evidence of the roles of music choice, social context, and listener personality in emotional reactions to music. Psychology of Music. doi: 10.1177/0305735612440615

Miksza, P., Roeder, M., & Biggs, D. (2010). Surveying Colorado band directors’ opinions of skills and characteristics important to successful music teaching. Journal of Research in Music Education, 57(4), 364-381. doi: 10.1177/0022429409351655

Miranda, M. L. (2002). The seasons of kindergarten: Developmentally appropriate practice in the kindergarten music classroom. D.M.A., Arizona State University, United States -- Arizona. Retrieved from

Napoles, J. (2006). The relationship between type of teacher talk and student attentiveness. Journal of Music Teacher Education, 16(1), 7-19. doi: 10.1177/10570837060160010103

Orman, E. K. (2002). Comparison of the national standards for music education and elementary music specialists' use of class time. Journal of Research in Music Education, 50(2), 155.

Regelski, T. (2002). On "methodolatry" and music teaching as critical and reflective praxis. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 10(2), 102-123.

Reifinger, J. L. (2012). The acquisition of sight-singing skills in second-grade general music. Journal of Research in Music Education, 60(1), 26-42. doi: 10.1177/0022429411435683

Ruddock, E. (2012). 'Sort of in your blood': Inherent musicality survives cultural judgment. Research Studies in Music Education. doi: 10.1177/1321103x12461747

Wang, C. C., & Sogin, D. W. (1997). Self-reported versus observed classroom activities in elementary general music. Journal of Research in Music Education, 45(3), 444-456.

Westervelt, T. G. (2001). An investigation of harmonic and improvisation readiness among upper elementary-age school children. Ph.D., Temple University, United States -- Pennsylvania. Retrieved from

Williamson, V. J., Jilka, S. R., Fry, J., Finkel, S., Müllensiefen, D., & Stewart, L. (2011). How do “earworms” start? Classifying the everyday circumstances of Involuntary Musical Imagery. Psychology of Music. doi: 10.1177/0305735611418553





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