Careers and Human
Development is a
process whereby people acquire capabilities that go beyond those required by
the current job and represents efforts to improve employees' abilities to
handle a variety of assignments. Training
focuses on learning specific behaviors and actions related to the job, while development
focuses on understanding information, concepts and context.
Development should begin with the organization's HRM plans.
Development results from experiences and the maturity that
comes from them.
restructure and implement strategic changes, development becomes more
A "developed" workforce produces more positive
economic benefit for organizations than undeveloped ones
Development strengthens core competencies.
Project-based work is growing, making careers a series of
projects, not steps upward in a giving organization.
Individual careers gain focus and evolve through the
There is usually little time to develop technical and
professional employees, so they are hired based on the amount of skill
development they have acquired at the time of employment.
Trends indicate that employers prefer to
"buy" rather than "make" scarce employees in today's labor
represent collections of instruments and exercises designed to diagnose
individual development needs.
An assessment center is not a place or a location.
Traits such as leadership, initiative, and
supervisory skills are more accurately assessed through assessment center
activities than through more traditional training and evaluation practices.
Assessment centers are oftentimes used by large
organizations to help identify employees with greater-than-normal potential for
A problem with assessment centers is that some
managers tend to use this development method as a way to avoid difficult
are legal and are oftentimes used in selection and training processes. (Personality is not a disability.)
testing should only be used when the administration and feedback processes
are closely supervised by a qualified professional. (HRM professionals are rarely trained
biggest problem with psychological testing lies in reliably interpreting
the results, which may result in construct validity problems.
are used to ensure that the right individuals are available at the right time,
and that they have sufficient experience to handle the targeted jobs.
charts may become part of the development process by specifying the nature
of development each employee needs to be prepared for identified
Several different development methods may
which is the daily training and feedback given to employees by immediate
supervisors, is the oldest on-the-job development technique.
is a relationship in which managers at the midpoints in their careers aid
individuals in the first stages of their careers.
Mentoring is oftentimes seen as a way for women
and other protected class members to crack the "glass ceiling."
Women and other protected class members report
difficulty finding mentors, who tend to be older, white individuals.
rotation encourages learning in multiple aspects of the organization's
work, but managerial development time is oftentimes lost when the
"trainee" must become acquainted with different people and
techniques in each new job unit.
assignments may be used in the development process, but may become
moves work best as development opportunities when the individual is moved
into the organization's core operational activities.
positions are useful for development if the assignments are challenging or
interesting to the individual being developed.
off-the-job development activities, employees meet with other individuals
who are concerned with somewhat different problems and come from other
organizations and may provide new perspectives on old problems.
methods should be used in limited environments as they encourage passive
listening instead of active participation in the development process.
instruction results depend on the ability of the trainer/instructor and
the interest that the individual participants have in the subject matter.
studies provide a medium through which participants can study the
application of management or behavioral concepts by analyzing situations
and deciding on the best course of action based on the data provided.
playing requires the participants to assume a role in a given situation
and act out behaviors associated with that role.
skills, like diversity and other human relations matters, are difficult
measure beyond reaction.
sabbatical is paid time off the job to develop and rejuvenate the
participant, but organizations must realize that the learning experience
is not within the control of the organization and is left somewhat to
exercises can create a sense of teamwork via shared-risk activities.
A career is a sequence of work-related
positions a person occupies throughout his/her work life.
typical career will include many different jobs, positions, transitions,
Adult development theorists believe that lives and
careers must be viewed as cycles of structure and transition.
To reward talented technical people who do not
want to move into management, many organizations have established dual career
individual career plan focuses on the individual's goals and skills;
organization-centered career planning focuses on moving up through the
pursue careers to satisfy deeply set individual needs.
Individual characteristics that affect how people
make career choices include interests, self-image, personality, and social
as in several recent years, many people are finding themselves in career
transition (in need of finding other jobs) because of organizational
retrenchment and downsizing.
Many technical workers change employers at a rate
of twice the national average.
The emphasis in the "new career" is on
self-development--development managed by the individual, not the organization.
"Moonlighting" may be considered to be a
career development strategy for some professionals, although their regular
employer is likely to have some difficulty with it because of reduced job
performance caused from being over-tired from working 12 or more additional
hours per week for someone else.
Dual-career couples have more to lose when
relocating than do individuals moving to new locations.