Human Resource Management
Job Analysis & Design
Job Analysis Definition and Concepts
is a systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content
and human requirements of jobs and the context in which jobs are performed. (In most cases, the best source of job
analysis information in the incumbent employee population because they
know what actually is done on the job; supervisors might thing, but not
know, what their employees actually do on the job.)
- A ____(2)____, or occupation, is
a grouping of similar positions having common tasks, duties, and
____(3)____ is a grouping of jobs having similar characteristics.
____(4)____ is a larger work segment, or work function, composed of
several tasks that are performed by individuals within their job
____(5)____ is a collection of tasks, duties and responsibilities
performed by one person; oftentimes it is seen as a “slot” within the
are obligations to perform certain tasks and duties; oftentimes seen as
the extent to which the organization depends on successful completion of
the duties assigned.
refers to organizing the tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of
work. (A key aim for job design is
to provide individuals meaningful work that fits effectively into the
state the tasks, duties and responsibilities of a job and are usually
presented in written form. (There
is no legal requirement to prepare or use job descriptions.)
present the knowledge, skills, abilities and other attributes that an
individual needs to satisfactorily perform work activities.
Typically include such elements as: education and
experience required by the job, work skill requirements, personal abilities,
mental and physical requirements of the job, and any other appropriate aspects
of the work environment.
indicate what the job accomplishes and what performance is considered
“satisfactory” in each area of the job description.
Job Analysis Responsibilities
unit personnel usually write the actual job description, based on input
from incumbent employees and supervisor(s).
unit line managers (supervisors) are responsible for identifying
performance standards, based on the analysis information. Managers also request new job analyses
as jobs change.
Conducting the Job Analysis
analysis activities work best with more stable, traditional jobs. For jobs that are constantly changing because
of evolving work environments, job analysis activities may be used to
identify core competencies necessary to perform tasks related to job
family involved. (In these
circumstances, many idiosyncratic jobs may evolve in which individualized
position descriptions may be more helpful than traditional job
analysis can be a threatening experience for both managers and employees,
in part because job analysis activities can identify the difference
between what currently is being performed in a job and what should be
job analysis information is often used for compensation purposes,
employers and managers have a tendency to inflate the importance of their
problem that occurs when conducting job analyses is that there tends to be
an over-emphasis placed on the current employees. (Analysis must take into consider that
the current incumbents’ job qualifications will likely exceed the minimum
KASO required to perform the job satisfactorily.)
provide management with flexibility in delegating work assignments, many
job descriptions contain a miscellaneous clause, which is oftentimes
called “other duties as assigned.” (This practice is fine, but, as a
general rule, “other duties” should not exceed more than 20% of the work
activities for more than 30 days.)
“virtual jobs” performed by individuals shifting from project to project
or working on cross-functional teams that change frequently, the job
analysis must focus on the competencies required and how the KASO of the
individuals are assessed and maintained.
Job Analysis Methods
analysis data can be gathered using several different methods; in
virtually all cases multiple techniques should be used. Common methods include: observations, interviews, questionnaires,
and focus groups.
most common method for conducting job analysis is ____(11)____;
however, it is limited because many jobs do not have complete and/or
readily observable work cycles. (The work ____(12)____ type
of observation determines the content and pace of a typical workday
through statistical sampling of certain actions.)
Focus group techniques work best when there is a
moderate level of disagreement among the incumbents, making the job difficult
to clearly define.
Time/motion studies, algorithms, critical incident
reports, and Delphi techniques may also be used in appropriate cases. (Delphi
works best when there is a high level of disagreement among incumbents.)
major advantage of the ____(31)____ method is that information on a
large number of positions and jobs can be collected inexpensively and in a
short period of time.
The ____(14)____ method is used by the
Department of Labor (DOL) and examines data, people, and things.
Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) is a standardized data source
provided by the DOL and is based on ___(15)___ methodology.
DOT is a good starting point for HR professionals when they are confronted with
preparing a large number of job descriptions.
on-line version of the DOT is known as the O-net.
The ____(16)____ is a proprietary
instrument that focuses on worker-oriented elements that describe behaviors
necessary to do the job. The PAQ is
very comprehensive and fits in most work environments, but is a little on the
expensive for many organizations.
Computerized job analyses reduce much of the time
and effort involved in writing job descriptions, but are likely to require more
training time and higher initial budget requirements than more traditional
Job Description Elements
- The ____(17)____ section of the job
descriptions provides the job title, reporting relationships, department
location, job code identification numbers and date of analysis
completion. The Fair Labor
Standards Act (FLSA) exemption status may also be stated in this section.
____(18)____ provides a two or three sentence general description
of the primary duties and responsibilities assigned within the job.
____(19)____ section contains clear and concise statements of the
major duties, tasks and responsibilities performed through assigned work
activities. (To the extent
possible, clear work outcomes and minimal performance standards should be
provided within the statements.)
____(20)____ section should clearly identify knowledge, skills,
abilities, including physical and mental dimensions, and other attributes
that an individual needs to satisfactorily perform work activities.
Legal Implications of Job Analysis
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures make it clear
that the HR requirements used in making personnel decisions must be tied
to specific job factors if employers are to defend their actions in court
as being job-related (and having “content validity”); therefore, job
analysis provides the foundation for most of the HR functional activities
(i.e., recruiting, selection, career planning, training, compensation,
labor relations, occupational safety and heath, etc.)
equity issues focus on job analysis to compare male- and female- dominated
light of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), employers are now
placing increased emphasis on developing and maintaining current and
accurate job descriptions, including the essential job functions.
Because of the ADA, many organizations have
revised their job specifications to increase the supervisors’ flexibility in
assigning work and creating “reasonable accommodations” for qualifying
individuals with disabilities.
The job specifications section should clearly
identify the physical and mental dimensions of the job if the job description
is to meet ADA standards.